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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 48  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 124-134

Liquid biopsy: A paradigm in diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic marker in urological malignancies


1 Department of Urology, Division of Urologic-Oncology, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, JNMC Campus, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
3 KAHER‟s Dr. Prabhakar Kore Basic & Applied Science Research Center [BSARC], V. K. Institute of Dental Sciences Campus, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajendra B Nerli
Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, JNMC Campus, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.jss_77_21

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Due to the recent rise in the trend of urological malignancies, noninvasive tumor biomarkers are being researched and used for many different clinical settings. Thus, the identification of specific and effective biomarkers in the form of liquid biopsy has become a major focus, mainly due to the necessity of selecting potentially responsive patients and predicting their outcomes. The rationale for using liquid biopsies instead of solid tissue samples is to avoid unnecessary invasive procedures which will provide the same diagnostic information. The main liquids tackled in patients with urological malignancies are blood and urine. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on the potential clinical utility of diagnostic materials found in these liquids and will focus on cell-free DNA and other circulating molecules, such as circulating tumor cells, RNAs (microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and messenger RNAs), cell-free proteins, peptides, and exosomes as cancer biomarkers.


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