|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 125-127
Correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and body mass index among college students
Gayatri H Patel, Sonali J Chitte, Camy Anilkumar Bhagat, Paras Abhesinh Bhura
Department of Musculoskeletal, Krishna School of Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation, KPGU, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
|Date of Submission||28-Feb-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||15-Jun-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Aug-2022|
Paras Abhesinh Bhura
Krishna School of Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation, KPGU, Vadodara, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: From among the core muscles (local and global), transversus abdominis muscle (TrA) is controlled independently as compared to the other trunk muscles. It creates a belt around the abdomen. “Abdominal draw-in” of the abdomen creates isolated activation of the TrA. Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. Low endurance of inner core muscles is one of the risk factors for mechanical low back pain. Studies say that high BMI is a risk factor for low back pain. This study aims to assess the TrA muscle endurance and BMI to determine the correlation between the two parameters. Purpose: The objective of the study is to find the correlation between BMI and transverse abdominis endurance among KPGU Physiotherapy College students. Materials and Methods: In this correlation study, 30 college students were selected by convenience sampling method on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. BMI of all participants was calculated. Transverse abdominis muscle endurance was assessed using pressure biofeedback/sphygmomanometer. Results: Results showed a significant negative correlation between TrA endurance and BMI (Pearson's correlation test; r = −0.45 at P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that students with higher BMI have low TrA endurance.
Keywords: Body mass index, muscle endurance, transverse abdominis muscle
|How to cite this article:|
Patel GH, Chitte SJ, Bhagat CA, Bhura PA. Correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and body mass index among college students. J Sci Soc 2022;49:125-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Patel GH, Chitte SJ, Bhagat CA, Bhura PA. Correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and body mass index among college students. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 3];49:125-7. Available from: https://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2022/49/2/125/354272
| Introduction|| |
Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health.” The epidemic of obesity has become a serious problem in modern society, especially in developed countries. Obesity is characterized by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. There are some indicators for degrees of obesity. For example, body mass index (BMI), as a common indicator, was used to evaluate the whole status of a person's body weight.
Endurance (a measure of fitness) is the ability to work for prolonged periods of time and the ability to resist fatigue. Muscular endurance is defined as the ability to perform repeated contractions over a period of time for an isolated group of muscles. In fact, most of our daily activities require some muscle endurance. Low back pain is caused by a combination of trunk muscle weakness and lumbar spine endurance, putting strain on the passive tissues. For people with low back pain, there is a lower muscular endurance when compared to people not with low back pain.
The muscles of the trunk segment can be categorized into two systems: the outer global system comprising the superficial muscles: rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lateral portion of quadratus lumborum (QL), erector spinae, and iliopsoas and deep local system comprising the deeper muscles: transversus abdominis (TrA), multifidus, deep portion of the QL, and deep rotators of the spine. From among the core muscles (local and global), TrA muscle is controlled independently of the other trunk muscles.
Transverse abdominis is a deep muscle which has segmental attachment in the lumbar spine and is able to provide segmental control. Studies have shown that the deep fibers of multifidi and transverse abdominis are the first muscles to become active when there is postural disturbance from rapid extremity movements.
The TrA is the deepest of all abdominal muscles and responds uniquely to postural perturbations. It attaches posteriorly to the lumbar vertebrae through the posterior and middle layer of the thoracolumbar fascia and through its action develops tension that acts like a girdle of support around the abdomen and the lumbar vertebra. It creates a belt around the abdomen. “Abdominal draw-in” of the abdomen creates isolated activation of the TrA.
However, not much literature is found for correlation between TrA muscle endurance and BMI.
The objective of this study is to find the correlation between TrA muscle endurance and BMI among college students.
Thus, it was hypothesized that there could be a correlation between TrA muscle endurance and BMI.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Thirty college students aged between 18 and 25 years from the BITS Institute of Physiotherapy were included in the study using a convenient sampling method. Students with lower back pain, neurological disorder, cardiorespiratory disorder, and mental instability were excluded from the study. Written consent was taken from all the participants.
- Weight machine
Body mass index calculation
BMI has been calculated for all the students as shown in [Table 1].
BMI: Weight (kg)/Height2 (cm2)
- As shown in [Figure 1], Prone test was conducted on them to measure TrA endurance
- For the prone test, the participants were positioned in prone position on plinth. Sphygmomanometer was placed horizontally under the abdomen with navel at the center of the unit. The lower edge of the cuff lies just below the anterior superior iliac spine. The pressure cuff was inflated to 70 mmHg and the subject was instructed to perform the drawing-in maneuver while fully relaxing the abdomen and maintaining relaxed breathing without moving the spine or pelvis
- If done properly, the pressure in pressure cuff dropped by 6–10 mmHg
- The subject was asked to try and maintain the pressure drop (drawing in) for up to 10 s.
A 20-s break was given between each contraction (10-s hold).
Muscle endurance (holding or tonic capacity) of the TrA was measured by the number of 10-s holds (up to 10).
| Results|| |
The result was analyzed using SPSS software version 23.0 (SPSS is Statistics Software). The statistical tool used was Pearson correlation.
[Table 2] shows that the mean ± SD of age (years) is 21.23 ± 2.47, mean ± SD of height (cm) is 161.57 ± 8.11, and mean ± SD of weight (kg) is 58.98 ± 12.42.
| Discussion|| |
The study aimed to find the correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and BMI among college students. We found that there is a negative correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and BMI as shown in [Graph 1] and [Graph 2]. The study aimed to see if there was a link between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and BMI among college students. We found that there is a negative correlation between transverse abdominis muscle endurance and BMI. Adipose tissue gets deposited in the abdominal region of obese individuals which increases the waist circumference. Studies revealed that large waist circumference is associated with poor muscle function and increases the risk of sarcopenia.
Transverse abdominis muscle is recognized in the literature as playing a vital and protective role in maintaining a healthy core and aiding lumbar biomechanics in the dampening of external forces applied to the lumbar spine. Strength, coordination, and timing of transverse abdominis muscle contraction may be important in stabilizing the low back, and contraction of this particular muscle may be one factor capable of preventing and reducing low back pain in sports and in activities of daily living. Research has shown the occurrence and recurrence of low back pain to be associated with dysfunction of the deep abdominal muscle and transverse abdominis.
The role of TrA has been demonstrated to be of great importance in continuous spinal stabilization during movement. Noha and Kader Abdel have concluded that according to the BMI, muscle strength of the quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles is more in obese children when compared to the underweight and the normal-weight individuals. When compared to children in other weight groups, obese children's muscle endurance was comparatively low. When comparing abdominal and quadriceps muscle strength and power to BMI, Lafortuna found that obese respondents' strength and power were lower than those in the lower weight group. According to our findings, there is a substantial negative relationship between TrA endurance and BMI.
| Conclusion|| |
There is a significant negative correlation between BMI and TrA endurance. Hence, the study concluded that students with higher BMI have low TrA endurance.
There is a greater need for stabilization exercise training for obese college students. By core muscle exercise, in future, musculoskeletal-related problems can be avoided in obese.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]