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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 223-228

Coronavirus disease 2019-associated mucormycosis of the head-and-neck area: A new rise of dreaded black fungus in the current pandemic


1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Microbiology, IMS and Sum Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Santosh Kumar Swain
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, IMS and Sum Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, K8, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.jss_56_21

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently evolving and associated with more complications with invasive fungal infection like mucormycosis. Classically, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) and other immunosuppressive conditions like corticosteroid therapy are known risk factors for causing mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection which rapidly spread to the orbit and brain from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Mucormycosis in COVID-19 is a fatal to the patient. There is possibility of COVID-19 as a trigger factor for diabetic ketoacidosis which predisposes to invasive fungal infections such as mucormycosis. Patients with poorly controlled DM and immunocompromised conditions increase the risk for development of COVID-19 infections in COVID-19 patients. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, a myriad of clinical manifestations and complications are emerged. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a fatal clinical entity associated with COVID-19 infections resulting in higher morbidity and mortality. The treatment includes both medical and surgical interventions. It requires early and adequate treatment with amphotericin B and surgical debridement and control of risk factors. A multidisciplinary approach by otorhinolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, neurologists, and dentists is successful for treatment of COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis in the head-and-neck region. Identification of the risk factors and early preventive measures will minimize the incidence of life-threatening mucormycosis in the head-and-neck area of COVID-19 patients.


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