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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 284-287

Perceptions about nonpharmacological interventions in the prevention of COVID-19 in the field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college


Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission09-May-2022
Date of Acceptance11-Sep-2022
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepti M Kadeangadi
G-01, Nityadeep Comforts, Shiva Basav Nagar Opp, KPTCL Guest House, Shakti Marg, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.jss_81_22

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  Abstract 


Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic is a major global public health threat. Coronavirus includes a large group of viruses, which infects both humans and animals. China reported the outbreak on December 31, 2019, to World Health Organization. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, USA, has published nonpharmacological interventions such as social distancing, zonal lockdown, rolling lockdown, wearing masks, and washing hands to combat the spread of COVID-19. The present study was conducted to assess the perceptions of people about nonpharmacological interventions in the prevention of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A facility-based study was conducted among 220 participants from December 01, 2020, to February 28, 2021, among outpatients in the field practice area of urban primary health care Rukmini Nagar, under the administrative control of J. N. Medical College in Belagavi district, Karnataka. Results: A total of 220 participants were interviewed and analyzed for the study. Out of which, 36 (16.4%) were male and 184 (83.6%) were female. One hundred and seventy (77.2%) of the participants practiced good hand hygiene and personal hygiene. One hundred and forty-five (65.9%) of the participants always wore a face mask, when they were going outside. One hundred and eighty-one (82.2%) of the participants started drinking more fluids in the form of water compared with normal days. Conclusion: There was a lack of awareness about face protection and the use of hand sanitizer among the common public. Grassroots level health-care workers such as Accredited Social Health Activist, Anganwadi workers, and community volunteers should be trained for giving health education about nonpharmacological interventions to the public for COVID-19 prevention.

Keywords: COVID-19 preventions, nonpharmacological interventions, urban health center


How to cite this article:
Manimaran N S, Kadeangadi DM, Manoli AD, Shivaswamy M S, Patil AJ. Perceptions about nonpharmacological interventions in the prevention of COVID-19 in the field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college. J Sci Soc 2022;49:284-7

How to cite this URL:
Manimaran N S, Kadeangadi DM, Manoli AD, Shivaswamy M S, Patil AJ. Perceptions about nonpharmacological interventions in the prevention of COVID-19 in the field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 31];49:284-7. Available from: https://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2022/49/3/284/365181




  Introduction Top


COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health threat, declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30, 2020. Coronavirus includes a large group of viruses, which infect both humans and animals. In humans, it causes respiratory illnesses from the common cold to serious infections such as fibrosis of lung and pneumonia. The outbreak of pneumonia such as illness occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan, the province has made high alert around the world. China reported the outbreak on December 31, 2019, to the WHO.[1] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published nonpharmacological interventions such as social distancing, zonal lockdown, rolling lockdown, wearing masks, and washing hands to combat the spread of COVID-19. The effectiveness of these measures will depend on the cooperation and mental preparedness of the people.[2] The pandemic has grown rapidly in 14 weeks' time since the first case of severe pneumonia was reported to WHO by the Chinese authority.[1] Nonpharmacological interventions are available to prevent infection such as the practice of good personal hygiene habits (handwashing, coughing into tissue or elbow, and avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth) and social distancing.[2] The Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India recommended measures such as adding turmeric to milk, turmeric in food, and intake of herbal tea during COVID-19.[3] Hence, the present study was undertaken to know the awareness and practices about nonpharmacological interventions of COVID-19.

Objectives of the study

  1. To assess the perceptions about nonpharmacological interventions of COVID-19 among outpatient department (OPD) patients of urban health center, Rukmini Nagar, Belagavi
  2. To assess the preparedness among the same against COVID-19.



  Materials and Methods Top


A facility-based study was conducted from December 01, 2020, to February 28, 2021, among OPD patients in the field practice area of the urban health center, Rukmini Nagar, under the administrative control of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College in Belagavi district, Karnataka, the sample size was calculated using the formula n = 4pq/d2. Perception of people for not washing hands with soap and water than usual (23%) was taken as (p) based on the survey done on public perspectives on protective measures about the COVID-19 pandemic[4] and considering the absolute error as 6%, the sample size was calculated as 220. All the OPD patients above 18 years of age without any mental disabilities, attending UHC Rukmini Nagar, Belagavi, were interviewed with prevalidated questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee for Human Subjects Research of the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi. Written informed consent was obtained from all the study participants before the data collection. We have taken modified WHO 2020 questionnaires guidance and survey tool where we took prevention of own behavior part for preventing COVID-19 and trust in sources of information[5] and the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India - Ayurveda's immunity boosting measures for self-care during COVID-19 crisis[3] was used as a tool for data collection. A total of 220 participants took part in the study. The study questionnaires consisted of (1) personal information, (2) sociodemographic information of study participants, (3) COVID-19 personnel experience, (4) perceptions about nonpharmacological intervention, (5) preparedness about COVID-19 using the Ministry of AYUSH recommended measures during COVID-19,[3] and (6) most common household practices for COVID-19. Collected data were coded and entered in an MS Excel sheet and then analyzed using SPSS software version 25.0 (IBM SPSS software version 20.0, Bangalore) and expressed in percentages. Association between the sociodemographic variables and perceptions about nonpharmacological interventions of COVID-19 was calculated using multiple linear regression.


  Results Top


Among the 220 participants interviewed, 3616.4%) were males and 184 (83.6%) were females. One hundred and thirty-eight (62.7%) of the participants were homemakers, 120 (54.5%) belonged to socioeconomic class IV, 107 (48.6%) of them were aged <25 years, and 13 (5.9%) of them were aged between 40 and 60 years of age [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic variables of study participants

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In the present study, 170 (77.2%) of the participants washed their hands with soap frequently. One hundred and thirty-three (60.4%) were using hand sanitizer frequently. One hundred and fifteen (52.2%) avoided shaking hands during the COVID-19 outbreak. One hundred and forty-nine (67.7%) participants used elbow/tissue during sneezing/coughing frequently. One hundred and fifteen (52.2%) of them avoided touching their face and nose frequently. One hundred and sixty-four (74.5%) cleaned their house surfaces with sanitizer or disinfectants frequently and 27 (12.2%) did not clean the surfaces with disinfectants frequently. Two hundred and thirteen (96.8%) wore face masks while going outside frequently, but 143 (65%) of them met other people without wearing masks frequently; 208 (84.4%) advised the other persons to wear face masks frequently [Graph 1].



Common household practices for COVID-19 among Rukmini Nagar urban primary health care, 181 (82.2%) participants started taking more fluids compared with normal days. Only 27 (12.2%) participants followed respiratory hygiene such as breathing exercises during COVID-19; 193 (87.7%) participants did not follow any respiratory hygiene. One hundred and forty-five (65.9%) participants added turmeric powder in food and 160 (72.7%) participants added turmeric powder in hot milk. Sixty-eight (30.9%) of them took ginger juice. Ninety-two (42%) followed salt water gargling. Only 18 (8.2%) of them followed steam inhalation. Seventeen (17.7%) study participants used lavang powder [Graph 2].



Predictors of practices about nonpharmacological interventions

Multiple linear regression was carried out to assess the effect of different variables on the outcome variables. Variables that came significant in simple linear regression were considered in multiple linear regression. In multiple linear regression, total members of the family, occupation, and education were significant predictors of outcome variables but age was not a significant predictor in multiple linear regression [Table 2]. In total members of the family (variables), the family who had members >4 was taken as the reference group. As compared to total members in the family >4, people who are living with two members, three members, and four members, on average had a −2.272 less score, −1.552 less score, and −1.804 less score, respectively. People who were homemakers on average had 2.313 more scores as compared to people engaged in other occupations. In the education variable, illiterate people were taken as the reference group, compared to the illiterate group, people who studied up to 10th standard and 12th/graduate on an average had a −1.989 less score and 6.503 more score, respectively.
Table 2: Distribution of association between sociodemographic variables with outcome variables (n=220)

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  Discussion Top


Multiple linear regression found that age >60 years had high scores in practicing all precautionary preventive practices for COVID-19 compared to other age groups. This could be because there was more mortality and severe illness reported in that age group,[6] but the age <25 years had the least practices approach toward COVID-19.

This study was done to assess the public perception of nonpharmacological interventions to prevent COVID-19. In the present study, 149 (67.7%) people used elbow/tissue during sneezing/coughing. A study conducted among 226 health-care workers of India showed that 18 (8%) of the participants used elbow/tissue during coughing/sneezing.[7] In our study, 213 (96.8%) people wore face masks while going outside. A study conducted among health-care workers and the general public showed that 163 (72%) participants did not use face masks while going outside the home.[8] In our study, 170 (77.2%) of the participants washed their hands with soap. A study conducted in Odisha state among 1,086 participants on August 2020 showed 87.10% washed their hands with soap frequently.[7] In our study, 115 (52.2%) people avoided touching their face and nose frequently. A cross-sectional study conducted in US and UK with participants through Google Forms showed that 92.6% of US participants and 86% of UK participants avoided touching eyes, nose, and mouth.[9] In our study, none of the participants were found to be aware of face protection for the prevention of COVID-19. In this study, the practices were assessed based on self-reporting, not by direct observation by the investigator at their house, and generally, the number of OPD patients in that area were females and some of the males attending OPD did not give consent for the study.


  Conclusion Top


Nearly three-fourths of the participants were wearing face mask and using hand sanitizer all the time and almost one-fourth of the participants did not use hand hygiene with sanitizer and had a habit of touching their face, nose, and mouth frequently. Half of the participants were not following salt water gargling and very few participants used lavang powder. None of them were aware about eye protection. Older than 60 years, educated up to tenth standard and homemakers followed more COVID precautions than others. Health-care workers such as Accredited Social Health Activist, Anganwadi, and community volunteers should be trained for giving health education about nonpharmacological interventions to the public on COVID. Participants should be educated about eye protection and the usage of hand sanitizer for the prevention COVID-19.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Staff and Interns of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC), The Principal, JNMC, Belagavi, for their support, and all the study participants for their cooperation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Gebru AA, Birhanu T, Wendimu E, Ayalew AF, Mulat S, Abasimel HZ, et al. Global burden of COVID-19: Situational analyis and review. Hum Antibodies 2021;29:139-48 [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 11].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chowdhury R, Luhar S, Khan N, Choudhury SR, Matin I, Franco OH. Long-term strategies to control COVID-19 in low and middle-income countries: An options overview of community-based, non-pharmacological interventions. Eur J Epidemiol 2020;35:743-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India: 2020; Ayurveda Immunity Boosting Measures for Self-Care during Covid Crisis. Available from: https://main.ayush.gov.in/event/ayurveda -immunity-boosting-measures-self-care-during-covid-19-crisis. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 07].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Meier K, Glatz T, Guijt MC, Piccininni M, van der Meulen M, Atmar K, et al. Public perspectives on protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy: A survey study. PLoS One 2020;15:e0236917.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
World Health Organisation. Europe: WHO 2020; Survey Tool and Guidance of Rapid, Simple, Flexible Behavioural Insights on Covid. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/333549. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 08].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
O'Driscoll M, Ribeiro Dos Santos G, Wang L, Cummings DA, Azman AS, Paireau J, et al. Age-specific mortality and immunity patterns of SARS-CoV-2. Nature 2021;590:140-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Jamir L, Najeeb S, Aravindakshan R. COVID-19 preparedness among public and healthcare providers in the initial days of nationwide lockdown in India: A rapid electronic survey. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:4756-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
  [Full text]  
8.
Begum F, Jena N, Chowdhury C, Patel TM. Preparedness towards COVID-19 among people of Odisha, India. Adv Med Dent Health Sci 2020;3:41-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lyu W, Wehby GL. Community use of face masks and COVID-19: Evidence from a natural experiment of state mandates in the US. Health Aff (Millwood) 2020;39:1419-25.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
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